由瑞士洛迦诺国际电影节（Festivaldel film Locarno）与瑞士卢迦诺大学(Università della Svizzera italiana) 合办的洛迦诺国际电影节夏季学院第十九期将于今年8月正式启动。继2015年起与国际传媒教育学院的成功合作后，2018年将再度携手面向中国推出以影像未来为主题的夏季学院项目。入选的优秀中国青年代表将与来自全球的外国青年成为瑞士国际电影节的正式代表全程观摩，并获得与国际电影大师和制片人面对面的机会。
· 通过特殊预留通道参加电影节“Semaine de la critique”竞赛单元的展映活动。
19th Documentary Summer School
Representations that build bridges, representations that divide
Images are everywhere, and the “insatiability of the photographing eye” (Sontang,S. 1977) has profoundly altered our relationship with the world.
This 18th Documentary Summer School will reflect upon the role of images and stories in shaping our opinion of people and issues we do not experience directly, and affecting our imaginary.
Day after day we are storing in our minds - most of the time unconsciously - millions of im-ages and stories. What role do these images and stories play in creating our imaginary of “the others”, especially when we have few or no direct relationship with these “others”? The re-spectful coexistence between people different in culture, sexual choices, origin, religion is becoming a issue of crucial importance in many countries.
Are there ways to communicate that can reduce fear, distrust, rejection? What kind of audi-ovisual representations – such as documentaries, reportages - could build bridges among people, and what other kinds are at risk of dividing people?
Based on this, the 2018 DSS will address a central area of reflection: the narrative choices filmakers make to represent those "others" who are perceived as different from us, for some reasons.
We are accustomed to images that, in an obvious attempt to attract our attention, emphasize what is strange, different, shocking or violent. Within these representations, the most usual and universal aspects of daily life are not portrayed and therefore they disappear from ex-istence.
One of the main issue connected to the visual representation of “distant” others is the use (or avoidance) of shocking, violent or graphic images.
Traditionally, the potentials and limits of using this kind of images in order to move or to sensitize the public has given rise to much debate in the history of photography, even before documentary cinema was born. The photographer and documentary filmmaker Raymond Depardon wrote that sometimes he felt ashamed of his profession: "Photographers are a bit like thieves, vultures, and voyeurs” (Depardon, R, 2006).
However, Susan Sontag changed her mind about the legitimacy and usefulness of showing shocking images, expressing two very different opinions in two of her books on the subject (Sontag, S., 1977 and 2003).
The long-standing issue of how to handle images of violence and tragedy in the audio-visual representation of others is nowadays central to the discussion of ethics in documentary fil-making. The extent of the ethical conflict that filmmakers face has indeed intensified as a result of changes in the international media ecosystem. Nowadays, troubling images raising ethics-related questions are rapidly spread across different media platforms thus making the problem of violence and truth-telling central not only for documentary filmmaking but to our society as a whole.
This is why the 2018 Documentary Summer School will explore the issue of violence, shock-ing images and truth-telling in documentary filmmaking with a special focus on the repre-sentation of “others”. In doing so, it will compare two different approaches which can be traced within documentary history and theoretical reflection:
a) The first approach maintains that to serve a higher goal such as ‘getting the story told’ or ‘exposing injustice’ one might justify the incorporation of images that could hurt or upset audiences. In such cases, the cinematic image becomes evidence and the filmmaker must ad-just the ethics of filmmaking to the specific context in which he or she operates. We can find written documentation of this approach in some of the essays by filmmakers and scholars collected by Joran Ten Brink and Joshua Oppenheimer in “Killer Images”, an exploration of cinema’s relationship to violence.
b) The second approach is concerned with the so-called “counter-effect of violent media im-agery” or to use Susan Sontag’s word from her book On Photography: “Images transfix. Im-ages anesthetize”. Or: “The photographed images of suffering do not necessarily strengthen conscience and the ability to be compassionate. It can also corrupt them”.
How does the spectacle of the sufferings of others in the media affect us? Can those pictures make us more engaged with the pain of others? What kind of representation can build bridges between us and those we perceived as “others”?
Analyzing film clips through the contribution of scholars and filmmakers, the 2018 DSS will discuss the ethics of documentary filmmaking, the eventual ethics guidelines used by filmmakers from all around the world and how these guidelines helped them keeping up with the challenges posed by the new media landscape.
Maria Cristina Lasagni is professor of Cinema and Documentary at the Università della Svizzera Italiana, and Scientific Director of the Documentary Summer School (with Prof. Ga-briele Balbi). She has directed scientific researches for Universities and Institutions, such as the Italian public broadcaster RAI, the Italian Authority for Communications, and for the Swiss Federal Office of Communications UFCOM. She has been content editor for the educa-tional channel TVLTV-Language (digital TV Stream, now Sky). As a filmmaker, she has di-rected documentaries on social matters (e.g. gender issues, mental health, psychiatric re-form, social marginality), as well as educational productions for the Italian Parliament and the Italian National Health Service. She is the head of Psicoradio, a national radio program in
collaboration with the Department of Mental Health in Bologna (Italy). Her latest book, enti-tled Nanook cammina ancora ("Nanook keeps walking", 2014) is about the historical devel-opment of the documentary genre, as well as on its philosophical, ethical and social status.
Andrea Segre is an award-winner Italian filmmaker who has directed over twenty films of documentary and fiction genre. In his films, Andrea has explored issues such as ethnic and cultural identity, migration, social and economic crisis. His first feature film Shun Li and the Poet (2011) is a poetic depiction of the friendship between a young Chinese woman, mi-grated to Italy, and a silent fisherman of Slavic origin. The film won three awards at the Ven-ice Film Festival, as well as the prestigious LUX Prize from the European Parliament. His last documentary film Ibi was, for the first time in Europe, entirely based on the self-narration, direct and spontaneous, made by an immigrant woman telling about herself and about her Europe to her sons in Africa. This documentary was also selected for the Locarno Film Fes-tival last year. His last feature film The Order of Things portrays the tension between Europe and immigration which is calling into question the very identity of Europe. This film won the Human Rights Film Network Award Special Mention at the 74 Venice Film Festival. Andrea Segre holds a PhD in Sociology of Communication from the University of Bologna. He has been teaching for over ten years graduate courses in visual ethnography and social commu-nication.
Gilles Kepel is a French Political Scientist and Arabist, has specialized in the contemporary Middle East and Muslims in the West. He is the Scientific Director of the Middle East Medi-terranean Freethinking Platform. He is also the Director of the Middle East and Mediterra-nean Chair at PSL Paris Sciences et Lettres Research University, based at École Normale Su-périeure. Kepel holds degrees in Arabic, English, and Philosophy, a PhD in Sociology and a Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches (HDR) in Political Science. He has specialized in con-temporary islamist movements since his 1983 PhD. He has been a Visiting Professor at New York University and Columbia University and was elected a Senior Fellow at the Institut Uni-versitaire de France from 2010 to 2015. Professor Kepel created and was general editor of the series ‘Proche Orient’ at Presses Universitaires de France, which was comprised of 23 volumes between 2004 and 2017. His books, such as ‘The Revenge of God’ and ‘Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam’, have been translated in a dozen languages. Recently he has published ‘Terror in France: The Rise of Jihad in the West’ (Princeton U. Press, 2017).
John Izod is Emeritus Professor of Screen Analysis in Communications, Media and Culture at the University of Stirling, and also a shamanic practitioner. He was formerly Head of De-partment and Dean of the Faculty of Arts. As principal investigator funded by an Arts and Humanities Research Council grant, he led a three-year project (2007-2010) on the cinema authorship of Lindsay Anderson. And as co-investigator funded by an Arts and Humanities Research Council grant 2014-2017, he is contributing to the Scottish dimension of a research project led from De Montfort University on British Silent Cinema and the Transition to Sound. He has published several books: Reading the Screen; Hollywood and the Box Office, 1895-1986; The Films of Nicolas Roeg: Myth and Mind; An Introduction to Television Documentary (with Richard Kilborn); Myth, Mind and the Screen: Understanding the Heroes of our Time; Screen, Culture, Psyche: A Post-Jungian Approach to Working with the Audience; Lindsay Anderson:Cinema Authorship (with Karl Magee, Kathryn Hannan & Isabelle Gourdin-Sangouard) and Cinema as Therapy: Grief and Transformational Film (with Joanna Dovalis).
Nevina Satta is the CEO of the Sardegna Film Commission, the Vice-President of the Italian Film Commission Association (IFC), and a board member of Cineregio, the EU network of Regional Film Funds. A professor of Film Producing and Directing at various EU Universities, she received her Philosophy degree in Cultural Media Studies and Visual Anthropology PhD in Milan, where she began her career as filmmaker and producer. Before returning to her homeland after twenty years, she was based in Los Angeles and Milan, developing and pro-ducing narrative features and documentaries. She has also worked as consultant for Inter-national Film Festivals and as an architect of training initiatives, among which the Documen-tary Summer School since its inception in 2000. She founded with her husband the Unicef-endorsed NGO The Traveling Film School. She is a specialist in Sustainability in the Creative Industries and Audiovisual Industry Funds and Institutions.